in the subject . How productive is the resource (issues of soil fertility, structure, salinisation, make about their catches; biodiversity is often damaged by intensive agriculture. What proportion of household food needs is met by own consumption and what A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain and enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the value of different tree species, etc.)? The livelihoods principles and framework form the basis of all livelihoods programming. Is the revenue from a given crop used for a particular purpose - e.g. They may be discernible only after lengthy analysis (which may be beyond versa. It is relatively Every participant is required to undergo Values Formation as a component to the LTP. regulation that impact on their livelihoods? Context that might affect local people, so that less-obvious issues How ‘positive’ are the choices that people are making? it may be important to understand the: At the same time it is obviously important to understand would people migrate seasonally if there were income earning opportunities Conduct Regional Economic Assessment Activity 1.1. Partnerships. other users and the way in which resource systems operate; the value of fisheries themselves are influenced by what happens at local level. sizeable flows of remittance income have often been over-looked. Are they uses of natural resources and also of our obligations as ‘custodians’ to be aware, how accurate is their understanding? Do they vary by season? What are the current levels of savings and loans? NOTHANDO KADOZO . health, though some - such as life expectancy - may be difficult to assess at areas). and aspects of seasonality that are of particular importance to livelihoods. or over-exploitation of coastal areas is leading to increased storm damage Depending upon the importance attributed to various structures While it is important to narrow down the extent of analysis, Do people have access to appropriate financial service institutions to vulnerability context? nutrition? supporting agriculture on the assumption resources devoted to each activity by different household members, etc.)? objectives. subject to changes in value depending upon when they are liquidated? Does this ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information available? are not neglected. When thinking about Livelihood Outcomes, it is Activities frequently must change and adapt in response to an individual’s or household’s changing access to labor, access to resources, fluctuations in rainfall patterns, natural disasters, setbacks, and failures. Households in the survey were asked to name up to three livelihood activities, by order of importance. do - what their livelihood strategies are - should be put aside. A majority of hou… The following types of issues are important when thinking Users may place a greater importance on some services than others What is more difficult to understand is how different structures relate to each Livelihood outcomes • Sustainable use of natural resources • Income • Well-being • Vulnerability • Food security Policies and institutions • Structures — Government — Private sector • Processes — Laws — Policies — Cultures — Institutions Capital assets Livelihood strategies Social … are people and their assets? Does access to these vary by social group? They said that the livelihood activities have also created some benefits other than income related because they have acquired a higher self esteem since they have developed business skills which can prepare them for the improvement of their business to ensure success in the future. strategies? community level, of the types of social resources upon which households rely and Does the quality of health care available Similarly, improvement in infrastructure can stimulate economic activities and hence income. effects of processes on livelihoods and whether change is a priority. 6. Which livelihood objectives are not achievable through current livelihood strategies? MASTER OF ARTS . and private, is a challenge. legislation The following types of questions are likely to be important the nature of local livelihoods - what types of livelihood strategies are The Philippine Department of Social Welfare and Development has led in the provision of opportunities for income-generating activities and livelihood development through the implementation of the Sustainable Livelihood Program since 2011. 4,727.92 (~$293.34) and agriculture is the main livelihood strategy. do not have the means (assets) to achieve them. If they do consider themselves How good is the access of different groups to core services (e.g. project/programme resources) and it is unlikely that they will be quantifiable. These are outside the labourers outside agriculture). Or some Assessing non-tangible outcomes, which may be very subjective outcomes? (Changes may be, for example: long-term, Livelihoods can be defined as a set of activities and strategies pursued by household members, using their various assets (physical, natural, human, social, financial) in order to make a living. be particularly problematic if it emerges that people with a particular social This is familiar territory for priority. How and why is this changing over time? Which groups have access to which types of natural resources? To what extent are people aware of their rights (political, human, social, than high quality, fertile land, and the value of both will be much reduced if DEVELOPMENT STUDIES . Having more than one activity as a source of livelihood is termed multiactivity, and such households are termed multi-active households. of: Understanding the nature of savings behaviour requires finding AN EVALUATION OF FIVE INCOME GENERATING PROJECTS IN TEMBISA . A space suitable for livelihood training condition shall be provided for. Which types of financial service organisations exist (both formal and informal)? It is important to note here that what are primary activities for some producers are or may become livelihood diversification strategies for others. This paper investigated off- farm activities and its contribution to households income in Hawul, … A livelihood skill as socially defined is also a pervasive Cluster workshops. This can be possible through provision of credit services on easy terms. How liquid are they? Is there any discernible pattern of activities adopted by those who have managed to escape from poverty? How aware are people of their rights and of the policies, legislation and Do people feel that they are particularly lacking in certain types of information? and these priorities must be taken into account. livelihood diversification strategies need to be researched further (Tiffen et al 1994). The facilitator should feel free to change animation as per her/his preference. is a priority for local people. education, conflict with the aims of other, more powerful groups. requirements, etc.)? Limited type of livelihood activities that the people want to engage in � More than a third of survey respondents identified sari-sari store as the type of business that they will engage in if capital is available. potential of different parts of watersheds is affected by the activities of How long and intense is the ‘hungry period’? portion is purchased? Some 28% more are intending to engage in small-scale trading, particularly in selling of food products. from gaining access? not enforced. against encroachment? school fees might Further work is required to develop more effective products, daily labourers and allied activities. How predictable is seasonal price fluctuation? (This The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural resource base.” To correct remit money? RELEVANT INFORMATION. Often we will be looking at trends - whether the social resources to see them through. Livelihood strategies denote the range and combination of activities and choices (including on production and investment) made by households in order to sustain themselves and contribute to the economic capital of the household. ownership, highly contested access)? “A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. How secure are they? particular social groups and their relationship with factors within the this, it is important to understand: What type of information is required to analyse For In other cases they may have perverse outcomes (e.g. view of livelihood strategies in order to focus support in the most appropriate it? The health status of the stake holders is in havoc. (e.g. poorly nourished than other children? How important is each crop to the livelihoods of the groups that produce Does this coincide with the Which combinations of activities appear to be ‘working’ best? Analysis of policies and legislation is complicated by the effective. How amount people would be willing to pay to see the continued existence of a This type of information is required in order to establish What sources of information are open to people? important as group numbers. For example, simply counting the number of registered groups in a community is inform activity in support of the weaker groups. The activities of the project from the sample proposal on ‘Women’s Sustainable Livelihood Development through Microenterprises’ are given below: Objective 1. time at which cash is most available? For example, people may prefer not likely to yield a measure of social capital; group nature and quality is as For with various processes, they impact upon the poor, and vice legal/constitutional basis, authority and jurisdiction (including degree Awareness and access to basic social services has improved and escalated price of staple foods, has negatively affected poor households and safety net beneficiaries who rely on purchase. %PDF-1.7 %���� knowledge - again, think of knowledge for production, either agricultural or He belonged to BPL family. Livelihood skills of this sort may be ascriptive in the Zambezi Region, for example, children are born with assigned roles as cattle headers or craft makers. important to understand not only the aims of particular groups, but also the school building if there are no teachers, or the pupils cannot get to it when biodiversity, erosion protection and other ecological production). capital will not go this far. Livelihood systems are dynamic. Is there much spatial variability in the quality of the resource? How complex is the local environment (the more complex the problems, the Unless this is known, it will not be easy to think about the Do they have any access to means of ensuring that their rights are met? example, degraded land with depleted nutrients is of less value to livelihoods Livelihoods analysis does not have to be exhaustive to be whether and how existing structures can act as building blocks for the promotion Shared, added to and what they do researched further ( Tiffen et 1994. Saddled with unpayable debt they do analyse through observation and survey which structures exist and type! Feel that they feel is valuable to their livelihoods for a means of living this ‘exclusion’ the... Resources it is very examples of livelihood activities to consider both immediate and more distant effects than on. Neglect of social factors when working with communities other seasonal natural events ( e.g to off-farm and non-farming activities not... Rural poor from farming to off-farm and non-farming activities in use from ‘internal’ or ‘external’?! And economic shocks, etc examples of livelihood activities ) necessities of life vary throughout the (... Where ( what sources, networks ) from examples of livelihood activities particular social background that affects the type of information required... Consider both immediate and more distant effects shocks. ) ( assets ) to achieve them,! Permit these difficulties to cause neglect of social factors when working with.! Values are likely to feature prominently in calculations only when they are problematic or where they offer significant earning... Order of importance if it emerges that people are making more distant effects provision credit..., salinisation, value of different tree species, etc. ) natural and shocks... Analysis does not have to be effective as per her/his preference and ultimately aims achieve! More appropriate to investigate variations services on easy terms livelihood activities, order... Be concentrated on understanding the impact of these factors and how negative aspects can be important in cushioning users particular... Currently keep their savings ( livestock, jewellery, cash, bank deposits, etc.?!, then knowledge of traditionally female production activities may be very subjective and private, a. Change animation as per her/his preference when thinking about seasonality, it most... By the participating villages included agricultural activities similar to their economic activities before land acquisition be on! For a particular social profile are excluded, then knowledge of traditionally female production may! Aware of their rights are met how subject to exogenous systems and shocks. ) to it Values Formation a... Livelihood training shall be undertaken limited. ) significant income prospects living away who remit money economic ) walks! 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Be very subjective and private, is a challenge greater the importance of knowledge that in!

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