Including all tributary glaciers, the Siachen Glacier system covers about 700 km2 (270 sq mi). Think of the coldest place you have ever been to. The weather archive diagrams is separated in 3 charts: 30 years of hourly historical weather data for Siachen Glacier can be purchased with history+. The Siachen Glacier is considered the highest-ever battlefield in modern times, where Pakistani and Indian soldiers periodically face off. In Siachen, you are at a risk of getting a deadly frostbite if the bare skin touches steel, including gun trigger, for just over 15 seconds. After that present Prime Minister Narendra Modi also visited this place. It is sadly the highest battleground on earth where India and Pakistan always meet in a frozen standoff. Its elevation from sea level is about 5400 meter. The average winter snowfall is more than 1000 cm (35 ft) and temperatures can dip to −50 °C (−58 °F). [17][18] However, more soldiers have died from the harsh weather conditions in the region than from combat. Relations between India and Pakistan since haven’t been as stable though. The lowest altitude of Siachen glacier (glacier terminus) is at 3,640m or 11,940ft. [58] Italian ecologist Giuliano Tallone terming the ecological life at serious risk, proposed setting up of Siachen Peace Park at the conference. Precipitation amounts . The 7 th Pay commission has proposed an increase of 50% in this allowance. In the winter temperature drop up to -50. [47] The 1972 Simla Agreement made no change to the 1949 Line of Control in this northernmost sector. In … Survival, for them, is no less than a war: From facing extremely chilly winds to making food-everything is a challenge for these army men posted along the Siachen glacier. Life is not easy on Siachen's glacier due to harsh weather. In the summers the temperature is -5 to -15. [15][16] Indian troops under Operation Meghdoot pre-empted Pakistan's Operation Ababeel by just one day to occupy most of the dominating heights on Saltoro Ridge to the west of Siachen Glacier. [60] Almost forty percent (40%) of the waste left at the glacier is of plastic and metal composition, including toxins such as cobalt, cadmium and chromium that eventually affect the water of the Shyok River (which ultimately enters the Indus River near Skardu.) The Indus is used for drinking and irrigation. The brief conflict was fought between long-time enemies India and Pakistan for control of a massive Himalayan ice field in the disputed Kashmir border region. During the snowstorm, at least 2 to 3 soldiers have to keep using shovels to clear snow around their post, otherwise the location gets buried. 35.19°N / 77.20°E ~3,564m asl 02:17 . It is a conflict where records of human endurance, flying and technical competence are being set nearly everyday. [22] In December 2015, Indian Union Minister of State for Defence Rao Inderjit Singh said in a written reply in the Lok Sabha that a total of 869 Army personnel have lost their lives on the Siachen glacier due to climatic conditions and environmental and other factors till date since the Army launched Operation Meghdoot in 1984. Colonel Narendra Kumar (retd), a former top mountaineer who played a crucial role in helping India secure the Siachen glacier, died on Thursday of an … To learn more: Privacy & Terms. Since operation Meghdoot in 1984 India is is in complete control of the Siachen Glacier. After the video went viral on social media, many people have come out in support of the soldiers and thanked them for the hardships they go through to protect the country. Avalanches and landslides are common at the glacier during the winters and temperatures can drop to as low as minus 60 degrees Celsius. Life is not easy on Siachen's glacier due to harsh weather. New Delhi, December 31: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Thursday condoled the demise of Colonel Narendra 'Bull' Kumar, the hero of Siachen war against Pakistan. The Siachen Glacier is the highest battlefield in the world. Siachen Glacier is the highest battlefield in the world. Wind speed and direction (in degree 0° = North, 90° = East, 180° = South and 270° = West). Army lost 163 personnel at the glacier during the last 10 years. In 2012, the average minimum temperature was minus 40 degrees Celsius. This wedge-shaped piece of heavily glaciated terrain which lies between the Great Karakoram and the Saltoro Ranges, isolated and uninhabited, in the northern sector of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, was the chosen battlefield. Weather forecast for Siachen Glacier (Gilgit-Baltistan), with all weather data such as: Temperature, Felt temperature, Atmospheric pressure, Relative humidity, Wind speed, Wind gusts, Isotherm, Precipitation, Cloud cover and Heat index - Siachen Glacier °C °F. Please let us know if you agree. The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River in the Indian region of Ladakh, which drains into the Shyok River. The town … Prior to 1984, neither country had any military forces in this area. Forever hostile to all life on the towering heights of this glacier, the weather has been particularly nasty ever since April 7 when a massive avalanche wiped out an entire battalion of the Pakistan A The author served his tenure at Siachen with the men who were trapped under an avalanche in 2012.This letter is one of several that he wrote to his wife during his time at the glacier. The conditions are so extreme that the bitterly cold weather claims more lives than the frequent artillery exchanges. The lowest recorded temperature was -66.1 degree C (-87 degree F). Both India and Pakistan claim sovereignty over the entire Siachen region. Over the past three decades, the Indian Army lost more than 860 soldiers on the forbidding Siachen glacier. Siachen Glacier is located in the disputed Jammu Kashmir territory in the east of Karakorum Range of Himalaya mountains. Moderate snowfall on glaciated surface, extremely low temperatures and intense wind conditions give rise to harsh weather and climatic conditions over this region. - Major General Mrinal Suman Siachen Glacier at a height of over 18,000 feet is the worlds highest battle field. The maximum temperature diagram for Siachen Glacier displays how many days per month reach certain temperatures. The expeditions are also meant to show to the international audience that Indian troops hold "almost all dominating heights" on the key Saltoro Ridge and to show that Pakistani troops are nowhere near the Siachen Glacier. The thought of battling extremely cold temperatures ranging from minus 40-70 degrees scares most people but the same does not apply to Indian Army soldiers posted in the Siachen glacier area. President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari also visited a area near the Siachen Glacier called Gayari Sector during 2012 with Pakistan Army Chief Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. [3] U.S. and Pakistani maps in the 1970s and 1980s consistently showed a dotted line from NJ9842 (the northernmost demarcated point of the India-Pakistan cease-fire line, also known as the Line of Control) to the Karakoram Pass, which India believed to be a cartographic error and in violation of the Shimla Agreement. The glacier lies between the Saltoro Ridge immediately to the west and the main Karakoram range to the east. Siachen Glacier at a height of over 18,000 feet is the world's highest battle field. [29][30] The Indian Army has developed various means to reach the Siachen region, including the Manali-Leh-Khardung La-Siachen route. meteoblue depends on cookies for best online experience, to analyse site usage and personalise advertising and content, for which we need your consent. "It is not so easy to work at the (Siachen) glacier because the temperature remains between minus 40 degrees to minus 70 degrees," a jawan said. Covering 700 km 2, Siachen receives an average winter snowfall of 1000 cm dropping temperatures to -50 o C. Map coordinate NJ 9842 lies at the foot of Siachen terminating the Line of Control (LoC) between India and Pakistan. The largest loss of human life on the glacier took place in April 2012 when 129 … The contended area is nearly 1,000 square miles (2,600 km 2) of territory. To support the troops, glacial ice has been cut and melted with chemicals. Months after declaring Ladakh a Union Territory, the Indian Army is now planning to open up the world's highest battlefield, Siachen Glacier, for tourists. For one month, there are daily aggregations for minimum, maximum and average values. The weather archive shows simulation data, not measured data, for the selected area. [citation needed], Dumping of non-biodegradable waste in large quantities and the use of arms and ammunition have considerably affected the ecosystem of the region. Survival, for them, is no less than a war: From facing extremely chilly winds to making food-everything is a challenge for these army men posted along the Siachen glacier. [70] In September 2003, the governments of India and Pakistan were urged by the participants of 5th World Parks Congress held at Durban, to establish a peace park in the Siachen region to restore the natural biological system and protect species whose lives are at risk. Rescue teams are braving adverse weather and effects of rarified atmosphere to locate and rescue survivors. [35][36] According to TIME magazine, India gained over 1,000 square miles (3,000 km2) in territory because of its 1980s military operations in Siachen. [72] The region was nominated for inclusion in the United Nations' World Heritage List as a part of the Karakoram range, but was deferred by the World Heritage Committee. [56] In 2001 India laid oil pipelines (about 250 kilometres long) inside the glacier to supply kerosene and aviation fuel to the outposts from base camps. The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains at about 35°30′N 77°00′E / 35.5°N 77.0°E / 35.5; 77.0, just east of the Line of Control between India-Pakistan. Meanwhile, Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted: Demise of soldiers in Siachen is very tragic. tion of the operational temperature is one of the major parameter. Like Siachen, in eastern Ladakh, too, the cost of sustaining 30,000 troops along 300 km of the Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a costly affair. The Siachen Glacier is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about 35°25′16″N 77°06′34″E / 35.421226°N 77.109540°E , just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends. Also Read Siachen Hero, Colonel Narendra 'Bull' Kumar (Retired), Dies At 87 The 1949 Karachi agreement only carefully delineated the line of separation to point NJ9842, after which, the agreement states that the line of separation would continue "thence north to the glaciers". T h e S i a c h e n G l a c i e r. For more than 17 blustery, shivering years, the Indian and Pakistani armies have been fighting a "No-Win" war on the 20,000-foot-high Siachen Glacier, the world's highest battleground. Unfortunately, low clouds and fog are difficult to distinguish from ground temperatures and thus can be almost invisible during the night. For areas or data with lower predictability, simulation cannot replace measurements and can also not be used as an evidence. At 76 km (47 mi) long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas. The major passes on this ridge are, from north to south, Sia La at 5,589 m (18,336 ft), Bilafond La at 5,450 m (17,880 ft), and Gyong La at 5,689 m (18,665 ft). In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot, a military operation that gave India control over all of the Siachen Glacier, including its tributaries. Thus the name Siachen refers to a land with an abundance of roses. It is the world’s largest non-polar glacier, the Siachen glacier is sometimes called a third pole. [71] After a proposal of a transboundary Peace Park was floated, the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (UIAA) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) organised a conference at Geneva and invited Indian and Pakistani mountaineers (Mandip Singh Soin, Harish Kapadia, Nazir Sabir and Sher Khan). Here a war is going on for the past fourteen years. Download variables like temperature, wind, clouds and precipitation as CSV for any place on Earth. [3][4] At 76 km (47 mi) long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas. Product overview; Data download; ERA5 download; Year comparison; Histogram; Wind rose; Risk assessment; Products. Often romantically described as the world’s coldest and highest battlefield. Indian Army at the Siachen Glacier (-53° Temperature and 21,147 ft. height) - SALUTE.. Yearly snowfall in Siachen can be well over 3 dozen feet. point+; history+; City Climate Android app iPhone app Products; Widget. Frostbite, spatial disorientation, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) and High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) have been prevalent nemesis for soldiers of both countries. [39] India has categorically stated that India will not pull its army from Siachen until the 110-km long AGPL is first authenticated, delineated and then demarcated.[40][41]. For more than 6 months there are monthly aggregations. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh became the first Indian Prime Minister to visit the area, during which he called for a peaceful resolution of the problem. dumped on the glacier, that neither decomposes nor can be burned because of the extreme climatic conditions. More options for this meteogram are available with point+, Temperature, including relative humidity in hourly intervals, Clouds (grey background) and clear sky (yellow background). The Siachen Glaciers, known as the world's highest battlefield, are located in the eastern Karakoram mountain range in the Himalayas, huddled next to the borders of Pakistan, India, and China. We bet none of them comes as close to any of these 10 that we have listed below. Kent L. Biringer, a researcher at Cooperative Monitoring Center of Sandia Labs suggested setting up Siachen Science Center, a high-altitude research centre where scientists and researchers from both the countries can carry out research activities[71] related to glaciology, geology, atmospheric sciences and other related fields. Located at an altitude of 5,753 m (summit), the Siachen Glacier sees some of the heaviest snowfall in the world, with the winter average standing at more than 1,000 cm. Sela pass is known for its natural beauty. The naming of the glacier itself, or at least its currency, is attributed to Tom Longstaff. T he name Siachen Glacier conjures up the image of a flowing river of ice, starting around 12,000 feet above sea level and going up to 24,000 feet and above. The average annual snowfall is 35 feet, with temperatures ranging from minus 25 to 50 degrees Celsius. You can see weather information for yesterday or the weather history of the last years. In the history archive meteogram, the purple points represent the wind direction, as indicated on the right axis. The Siachen glacier is the largest in Asia. Islamabad also deployed its troops. The lost more soldiers to adverse weather conditions than hostilities. Operation Meghdoot was launched on 13 April 1984 when the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force went into the Glacier. The glacier’s width varies from 1 to 2.5 km. Widget Map; Widget 3h; Widget Day; Widget Seeing; News. Located 12,000 feet above sea level north of Leh, Ladakh, it is part of the highest battlefield in the world. [50], Preliminary findings of a survey by Pakistan Meteorological Department in 2007 revealed that the Siachen glacier has been retreating for the past 30 years and is melting at an alarming rate. Siachen Glacier, 71km long and one of the world’s largest glaciers, is situated in the north of the disputed region of Kashmir. At this high peak, where the wind is very fast along with that the oxygen level is too low. [6][7][8][9] Pakistan maintains a territorial claim over the Siachen Glacier[10] and controls the region west of Saltoro Ridge, lying west of the glacier,[11] with Pakistani posts located 3,000 ft below more than 100 Indian posts on the ridge.[12][13]. [69] In addition, the Indian Army's Army Mountaineering Institute (AMI) functions out of the region. Design a fridge magnet. Follow … The Siachen conflict - Wikipedia is an intermittent small-scale border war between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier in the Karakorum mountain range in Kashmir, in the extreme northwest of India/northeast of Pakistan. The Siachen Glacier in the northern Karakoram range is one of the coldest places in not just India, but in the entire non-polar world. [3][14] Between 1984 and 1999, frequent skirmishes took place between India and Pakistan. The Indian troops have been deployed at Siachen Glacier at an altitude of about 20,000 feet for decades to protect the borders. It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its head at Indira Col on the India–China border down to 3,620 m (11,875 ft) at its te… The Siachen Glacier is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about 35°25′16″N 77°06′34″E / 35.421226°N 77.109540°E / 35.421226; 77.109540, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends. Indian army has lost 849 men and officers till date mostly to the elements. Meteosat satellite images for Europe are updated in real-time every 5 minutes. It has number of peaks, side valleys and at its head lies the Indira Col, the divide between South and Central Asia. The average minimum temperature at the glacier has been rising steadily. [61][62] Research is being done by scientists of The Energy and Resources Institute, to find ways for successfully disposing the garbage generated at the glacier using scientific means. However, with time, the glacier … Both countries maintain a permanent military presence in the region at a height of over 6,000 m (20,000 ft). [56][57] As of 2007, the temperature rise at Siachen was estimated at 0.2-degree Celsius annually, causing melting, avalanches, and crevasses in the glacier. [64], The flora and fauna of the Siachen region are also affected by the huge military presence. You can find the altitude of the grid cell besides the coordinates. The first group included cadets from Chail Military School, National Defence Academy, National Cadet Corps, Indian Military Academy, Rashtriya Indian Military College and family members of armed forces officers. New Delhi: It is almost 15 years back that the last bullet was fired on Siachen Glacier, the world’s highest battlefield where more Indian and Pakistani soldiers are killed by the inhospitable weather and terrain than gun fire. However, it is with the deepest of regret that we have to state that chances of finding any survivors are now very remote," the statement, added. The Defence Minister echoed sentiments of the entire India that remains in awe of the gallant Siachen Warriors ever since the launch of Operation Meghdoot on April 13, 1984 when, in an unimaginable feat of grit and bravery, the Indian Army gained control over the dominating heights of the Saltoro Ridge, Sia La and Bilafond La, in a short period of time. [51] The study of satellite images of the glacier showed that the glacier is retreating at a rate of about 110 meters a year and that the glacier size has decreased by almost 35 percent. Sela Pass, Tawang – Natural Beauty All-Around. The nearest civilian settlement is the village of Warshi, 10 miles downstream from the Indian base camp. [24][25][26], Aside from the Indian and Pakistani military presence, the glacier region is unpopulated. The Siachen Glaciers, known as the world’s highest battlefield, are located in the eastern Karakoram mountain range in the Himalayas, huddled next to the borders of Pakistan, India, and China.Th Dubai, one of the hottest cities on earth, has almost none days below 40°C in July. The idea of declaring the Siachen region a "Peace Park" was presented by environmentalists and peace activists in part to preserve the ecosystem of the region badly affected by the military presence. Soldiers are deployed up to a height of 22,000 feet. Siachen is the world’s largest non polar glacier and thus also referred as third pole. Siachen is the world's largest non-polar glacier, and thus is sometimes referred to as the third pole. The "15-day" diagram shows hourly data. - Major General Mrinal Suman Siachen Glacier at a height of over 18,000 feet is the worlds highest battle field. [63] Some scientists of the Defence Research and Development Organisation who went on an expedition to Antarctica are also working to produce a bacterium that can thrive in extreme weather conditions and can be helpful in decomposing the biodegradable waste naturally. Winter season in the region lasts from September to March. [48][52] In an eleven-year period, the glacier had receded nearly 800 meters,[53] and in seventeen years about 1700 meters. [55] One of the reasons theorized for the recent glacial retreat is chemical blasting, done for constructing camps and posts. This is the longest glacier of Karakorum range in Himalaya Mountains with a length of about 71 kilometer and also the world,s 2nd longest glacier as far as non-polar regions are concerned. Track Latest News Live on However, after the Pakistani incursions during the Kargil War in 1999, India abandoned plans to withdraw from Siachen without official recognition of the current line of control by Pakistan, wary of further Pakistani incursions if they vacate the Siachen Glacier posts without such recognition. You can also see the cold winters in Moscow with a few days that do not even reach -10°C as daily maximum. Therefore, the temperatures for mountains and coasts can be a somewhat different from the data at the exact location which you have selected. Soldiers at such high altitudes require 55 items out of which 20 are imported. For the military conflict over this area, see, Location of the Siachen Glacier within the greater, Regions and administrative territories of, From map: "THE DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES ON THIS MAP MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE", From map: "THE DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE", Siachen Glacier is 76 km (47 mi) long; Tajikistan's, as is done when determining river lengths, second-longest in the world's non-polar areas, Defence Research and Development Organisation, International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation, International Union for Conservation of Nature, "The Himalayas War at the Top of the World", "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – Opinions", "Siachen dispute: India and Pakistan's glacial fight", "India gained control over Siachen in 1984", "In landmark move, PM Imran unveils 'new political map' of Pakistan", "Life & death in world's highest combat zone", "Siachen deaths harden resolve to hold glacier: Army chief", "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Opinions", "Siachen height provides military depth India can't afford to lose | India News", "Story of Saltoro – From Ababeel to Meghdoot", "Avalanche buries Pakistan base; 117 soldiers feared dead", "Bleeding in Siachen: Pakistan losing 30 soldiers a year on highest battlefield", "Rescue operations at Gayari Sector after Pakistan avalanche, Photo Gallery", "33 Indian soldiers killed in Siachen since 2012: govt", "In Siachen, 869 Army men died battling the elements", "Kashmir's Siachen glacier a frigid outpost in India-Pakistan conflict", "Demilitarization of the Siachen Conflict Zone: Concepts for Implementation and Monitoring", "India must continue to hold on to Siachen: Bikram Singh, Army Chief General", "Army should stay put in Siachen, says General Bikram Singh", "846 Indian soldiers have died in Siachen since 1984", "Won't vacate Siachen, we can't trust Pakistan, says Manohar Parrikar | India News", "Here's how ISRO's space technology can save lives of soldiers at Siachen", "Siachen: While the battle continues to rage, no settlement is in sight", "Siachen glacier: Indian troops repulse major Pakistani offensive", "Army opposes Pakistan's demand for troop withdrawal from Siachen Glacier – Indian Express", "UN Map showing CFL as per Karachi Agreement – UN document number S/1430/Add.2", "Why India cannot afford to give up Siachen", "Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for Glacier Movement Studies", "Exchange Siachen confrontation for peace", "Military activity leads to melting of Siachen glaciers", "Environmental peacemaking: Ending conflict between India and Pakistan on the Siachen Glacier through the creation of a transboundary peace park", "Siachen tragedy – day 5: Bad weather dogs avalanche search efforts", "16 Things You Should Know About India's Soldiers Defending Siachen", "Pakistan wants resolution of Siachen issue: Kayani", India hits back at Pak over Siachen issue, "Out of the box ideas for glacier: Siachen could become bio reserve or peace park", "Sites deferred by the Committee which may merit re-nomination", "US expert at Sandia wants Siachen converted into Science Centre", TIME Asia's cover story on Siachen Glacier (July 11, 2005), Video about the Conflict in the Siachen area and its consequences, Outside magazine article about Siachen battleground, 2019 Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh reorganisation, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh, Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Eliezer Joldan Memorial College Leh, Ladakh, Students' Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh, Ladakh Ecological Development and Environmental Group,, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 17:28. Blizzards can last for weeks, temperatures can drop to -55 degrees Celsius (-67 degrees Fahrenheit), and crevasses can swallow a person whole. [68] Ignoring protests from Pakistan, India maintains that it does not need anyone's approval to send trekkers to Siachen, in what it says is essentially its own territory. The Indian Soldiers posted on the Siachen Glacier are paid a special allowance of Rs 14,000 per month. "Chun" refers to any object found in abundance. The Siachen Glaciers, known as the world's highest battlefield, are located in the eastern Karakoram mountain range in the Himalayas, huddled next to the borders of Pakistan, India, and China. News; Weather news; This site also uses cookies. Map of Siachen TOIThe Siachen(the place of roses) glacier, 72 km, in the East Karakoram is one of the longest glaciers in the Himalaya and Karakoram. [51] The Indian army is said to have planned a "Green Siachen, Clean Siachen" campaign to airlift the garbage from the glacier, and to use biodigestors for biodegradable waste in the absence of oxygen and freezing temperatures. The weather extremes in Pakistan include extremely high and extremely low temperatures, heaviest rainfalls and floodings. At this high peak, where the wind is very fast along with that the oxygen level is too low. [38] As per official records, only 220 Indian soldiers have been killed by enemy bullets since 1984 in Siachen area. [37] In February 2016, Indian Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar stated in Parliament that India will not vacate Siachen as there is trust deficit with Pakistan and also said that 915 people have lost their lives in Siachen since Operation Meghdoot in 1984. Minus 15 C (5 F) – that’s the average year-round temperature at 20,000 feet above sea level, which is where the Siachen Glacier War of April of 1984 raged – the highest battlefield on the planet . Why is the control of 70 km long stretch of land so important and in what conditions does the Indian Army operate there? Weather archive; Climate comparison; history+. The entire Siachen Glacier, with all major passes, has been under the administration of India (currently as part of the union territory of Ladakh, located in the Kashmir region) since 1984. It is projected that temperatures barely cross over freezing point during summers and drop as low as -50C during the winter season. [4][42][43][44][45] According to the Indian stance, the line of separation should continue roughly northwards along the Saltoro Range, to the west of the Siachen glacier beyond NJ9842;[46] international boundary lines that follow mountain ranges often do so by following the watershed drainage divide[40] such as that of the Saltoro Range. The Siachen conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, was a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir.A cease-fire went into effect in 2003. The maximum altitude of Siachen glacier is about 5,750m or 18,860ft. The Nubra river drains the glacier and ultimately joins the Shyok river near Khalsar. Avalanches and landslides are common at the glacier and the temperatures drop to minus 60 degrees. The Shyok in turn joins the 3000 kilometre-long Indus River which flows through Pakistan. [34] Pakistan controls the glacial valleys immediately west of the Saltoro Ridge. The conflict over Siachen began in 1984 when India occupied the heights of the 78-kilometer long glacier, fearing Pakistan wanted to claim the territory.

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